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Funchy, some of this will be what others have already typed. I'll spew what's in my head.

If your injectors have never been overhauled then you need to get them overhauled. This is not only due to kms but also calendar time and sitting unused. If you need to find parts I can help. No idea who can do the work in your area. You will have the cracking pressure adjusted to the max. Alternatively, you can put 121 degree nozzles (vs 113 degree) or full injectors from a TD42T (UD) and the cracking pressures to suit which is close to direct injection. I have done this. The 121 nozzles will increase cracking pressure with the same shims in your 113 injectors.

If your IP is not leaking and performing well you do not have to reseal or rebuild it. However, due to it's age it will leak and at a minimum will need a governor seal/gasket/o-ring and probably an o-ring for one or both of the mechanical advance timing covers. This can be accomplished without removing the IP. I am able to reseal and repair my own IPs so far.

I am not aware there is a factory cat on these rigs.....there is some sort of secondary device towards the back but not a cat as it is too far back and too much heat lost to be effective as a cat. No idea if a cat closer to the manifold would help. That said (typed), I purchased a rig from the Phils with a cat added by mistake and there is no discernible reduction in black.

NOX and timing. You may need to consult an expert. If the test does not measure NOX then you would be advised to advance the IP timing from factory. This can be a simple turn of the IP towards the engine or measure where it's at and where you want it set. If you advance and it has a noticeably louder diesel knock then you have gone too far. Advancing the IP timing gives you more power and economy but more NOX.

The most effective change in black out the back will be reducing the max load fuel (GQshayne)........this will also reduce the power and idle speed. This is also the simplest and easiest to perform and undo.

All naturally aspirated diesels suffer from lack of air at higher power settings. This lack of air converts to lack of oxygen and black. Factory turbos are not a big performance increase (8psi ish) but they do clean up the exhaust whilst producing a little more power and increasing economy. Factory turbo IP are more retarded to compensate for higher induction pressure => NOX.

Funchy, yours is a '93? Factory turbos were not produced until late '93 and are essentially '94 models taking into account first registration date vs build date.
 

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Forgot:

Do not use a fuel cetane additive for the test. I find it smokes more........go figure.

There is a plethora of information (on here) about mixing non synth, conventional 2 stroke 1:200 to your diesel. This has multiple benefits but may measurably reduce the black.
 

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Discussion Starter #23
Thanks for the info here. Very good stuff. Yes, mine is essentially a 1994. Produced 9/1993 in the first batch of the factory turbos. But I have never seen it labeled as a 1994 anywhere, so I'm going with 1993 as the model year...helps with the emissions standard I'll be tested against (Tier 0 vs Tier 1)!

The vehicle will be tested for 1) Hydrocarbons; 2) Carbon Monoxide; 3) NOx; 4) Particulates.

There is a truck shop in the area that sells and works on UD trucks, so that may work. Otherwise, I'll have to dig around to see what I can find. Tons of mechanics around in Southern California, with the full range of skill and experience (from total garbage to world class). My usual mechanic is straight-up enough that he might be able to point me toward someone who can help with this rig.

I'll almost certainly reach out for help with parts or other North American-specific issues -- thank you very much for the offer. I'll get to work on this project shortly. Still trying to work out if I can get a standard EPA certification, or if I have to go through the one and only California-licensed lab for gray-market imports that is demanding just under triple the price of an ordinary emissions lab. Mafia-type extortion here that could make the fine for out-of-state registration seem like a bargain...
 

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Discussion Starter #26
The gov-sponsored monopoly lab will modify and certify it for the bargain price of $9,950 USD. When I asked for a breakdown or any kind of explanation of the modifications, the reply was: "That is the cost." No joke. So if I fail, I'm basically required to either go through with their ridiculous modification package or throw in the towel on California registration. Meaning either sell or register elsewhere. I can't really imagine paying that price, given I paid less than that for the car itself.

The TD42Ts used in the UD trucks for 1993 were tested against a standard for vehicles above 8500 lbs GVWR. That standard was measured in grams/bhp-hour. The TD42T was rated at 135 hp @ 3500 rpm, and tested out at:

HC: 0.2g vs the max of 1.3g
CO: 0.6g vs the max of 15.5g
NOx: 4.4g vs the max of 5.0g
PM: .19g vs the max of .25g

The light duty/passenger vehicle standard is measured in grams/mile, with the following as the maximum measurements:

HC: .41g
CO: 3.4
NOx: 1.0
PM: .20

Also, there really does appear to be a cat on there. I'll crawl under and take a picture later. I haven't ever found a Tokyo Diesel Retrofit sticker anywhere, but I do think most of Japan was required to make their vehicles meet 1997/1998 standards as of some time in the mid 2000s, so the cat was probably added around then.
 

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Discussion Starter #28
Good in theory! But so far the cheapest FTP-75 test I've found is $1550 USD. Hoping to run this once and be done. On the plus side, if I pass and get this registered, I'll never have to run another smog check. Pre-'97 diesels are exempt. Just have to prove it meets the original standard, then I'm good. The place where I could register it in Nevada would mean annual smog inspections--meaning also that I would probably have to drive ~ 4 hours each way to Las Vegas. Insurance there is double what I get at my place here (for crappier coverage, too), and insurance is integrated with Nevada's DMV, so it's trickier to just run insurance at my California address. Altogether, the test is worth it--if I can pass.

I found someone who seems capable of overhauling the injectors down here, so I'll start there.

Thanks for the 2-stroke oil idea. I hadn't seen that before. I'm still pretty new to diesels in general and have a lot to learn.
 

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I would have thought the simplest option is to reduce the fuel delivery from the injector pump.
That's too easy. You're taking away my excuses for upgrades!
You keep stating how important this is for you to pass the emissions testing and how much it'll benefit you with the easier rego/ insurance/ no yearly smog testing etc, but you have ruled out de-tuning your vehicle to pass? :unsure:
Seems like you enjoy making life hard and throwing money away!
 

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Discussion Starter #31
You keep stating how important this is for you to pass the emissions testing and how much it'll benefit you with the easier rego/ insurance/ no yearly smog testing etc, but you have ruled out de-tuning your vehicle to pass? :unsure:
Seems like you enjoy making life hard and throwing money away!
Was mostly having a laugh at myself there because my whole initial idea was to throw more air to reduce PMs, CO, and HC, and then figure out a way to deal with remaining NOx like a better cat. It hadn't really occurred to me that instead of throwing more air, I could just reduce fuel...
 

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LPG injection will make it burn a lot more efficiently.
I have lpg injection on my ZD30 DDTI. The gas is only used as the turbo kicks in. Do at idle not used.. I'm getting fuel economy of 9 to 10 litres per 100 klms. Which is great very happy. But my log stopped working . Guessing fault solonoid. But after trip to Melbourne from Adelaide & return still getting same fuel economy. Still happy .
 

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It's at 115,000 km, not miles. Still old at 26 years, but it's in better shape than most cars even a year or two old. This summer I was visiting family that was staying at a really high end resort nearby, and the valet parkers put the old beast up front, literally next to a McLaren. That was a first for me. People do go bonkers over this thing over here. Occasionally an Aussie or someone from the ME knows what it is, but mostly everyone gawks and asks, "What is that thing?"

I'll definitely think about the pump. If I'm going to do it, I'll probably think about the 12mm upgrade while I'm at it. Any recommendations for where to pick up a pump and new injectors?

In researching vegetable oil briefly, it seems there's a big improvement in all emissions from it--aside from NOx. I'll figure out if my own fuel would even be used before I research this much further, though.

Thanks for the air injection idea. It's something I hadn't thought of and actually know nothing about. I'll take a look, though. If it's just diluting the emissions, it may not help me, though. The test measures each type of emissions in grams/mile, so a parts per million reduction probably won't do anything for me. Still, I'll read up on this a bit.

Thanks to all of you though for your help. I'll keep you posted with what I do and how this plays out.
If you decide to do the pump dont put a 12mm on it prior to emissions checkup. 12mm pumps do struggle a little down low for fuel control and can be a bit smokey or dirty especially if the pump builder hasnt done to many of them. it would almost be worth getting one from australia as there is a few guys here that do an awesome 12mm pump. but even they struggle a little bit down low for emissions.
 

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Discussion Starter #34
If you decide to do the pump dont put a 12mm on it prior to emissions checkup. 12mm pumps do struggle a little down low for fuel control and can be a bit smokey or dirty especially if the pump builder hasnt done to many of them. it would almost be worth getting one from australia as there is a few guys here that do an awesome 12mm pump. but even they struggle a little bit down low for emissions.
Thanks for letting me know about this. The pump wasn't quite at the top of the priority list anyway, but it would have been pretty painful if I'd forked out the cash for this and then encountered even more issues.

Thanks also to Stevo, for the input on the LPG injection idea. Why did you go about rigging this up on your truck?
 
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